Proposals to most effectively shift towards a more sustainable economy
Technologies that are effective in reducing the stress on the planet should be complemented by policies that support them most effectively. In many cases, two sets of local feebates can best achieve the necessary shift towards a more sustainable economy.
Technologies to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
The Virgin Earth Challenge is "a prize of $25m for whoever can demonstrate to the judges' satisfaction a commercially viable design which results in the removal of anthropogenic, atmospheric greenhouse gases so as to contribute materially to the stability of Earth’s climate".
Among the 11 shortlisted organizations are:
- biochar (Biochar Solutions, Black Carbon and Full Circle Biochar)
- carbon capture, particularly from ambient air (Carbon Engineering, Kilimanjaro Energy and Climeworks)
- enhanced weathering (Smart Stones)
Above three technologies (biochar, carbon air capture and enhanced weathering) have great potential to help out with carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere. To combat global warming, further technologies should be considered, such as Solar Radiation Management (SRM) and Arctic Methane Management (AMM).
How effective each technology is in one area is an important consideration; importantly, each such technologies can also have effects in further areas.
Global warming is only one out of multiple areas where action is required; an example of another area is the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica; effective action has already been taken in this area, but the growing hole in the ozone layer over the Arctic shows that further action is necessary.
A safe operating space for humanity is a landmark 2009 study that identifies nine essential areas where sustainability is stressed to the limits, in three cases beyond its limits.
The inner green shading represents the proposed safe operating space for nine planetary systems. The red wedges represent an estimate of the current position for each variable. The boundaries in three systems (rate of biodiversity loss, climate change and human interference with the nitrogen cycle), have already been exceeded. From: A safe operating space for humanity, Rockström et al, 2009.
Areas and applicable technologies
The table below shows these nine areas on the left, while technologies that could be helpful in the respective area feature on the right.
As said, each of technologies may be able to help out in multiple areas. As an example, by reducing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, biochar and carbon air capture can also indirectly reduce carbon dioxide in oceans and thus help out with ocean acidification. Enhanced weathering could additionally reduce carbon dioxide in the oceans directly, thus presenting itself even more prominently as a proposal to achieve sustainability in this area.
Similarly, algae bags located in the mouth of a river could help out in multiple areas. They could produce biofuel and thus help reduce aviation emissions, while in the process catching fertilizer runoff, thus reducing emissions of nitrous oxide (the largest ozone-depleting substance emitted through human activities in a 2009 NOAA study) and also reducing depletion of oxygen in oceans.
Implementing the most effective policies
Policy support for such technologies is imperative. Just like some technologies can help out in several areas, some policies can cover multiple areas. As an example, a policy facilitating a shift to cleaner energy can both reduce greenhouse gases and aerosols such as soot and sulfur. Sulfur reflects sunlight back into space, so reducing sulfur emissions results in more global warming, but conversely global warming can be reduced by releasing sulfur, say, over water at higher latitudes.
How many different policies would be needed to support such technologies? What are the best policy instruments to use?
Traditionally, government-funded subsidies and standards have been used to contain pollution, sometimes complemented with levies and refundable deposits; this can also work for chemical pollution. Standards have also proven to be effective in reducing the impact of CFCs on the ozone layer, while - as said - policies could at the same time also be effective in other areas, in this case reducing the impact of CFCs as greenhouse gases.
However, standards don't raise funding for support of such technologies, while taxpayer-funded subsidies make everyone pay for the pollution caused by some. Trade in credits and offsets is prone to abuse, compromising both the integrity and effectiveness of the respective policy. Local feebates are most effective in facilitating the necessary shifts in many areas.
Two sets of feebates
To facilitate the necessary shift away from fuel toward clean energy, local feebates are most effective. Fees on cargo and flights could fund carbon air capture, while fees on fuel could fund rebates on electricity produced in clean and safe ways. Fees could also be imposed on the engines, ovens, kilns, furnaces and stoves where fuel is burned, to fund rebates on clean alternatives, such as EV batteries and motors, solar cookers and electric appliances. Such feebates are pictured as yellow lines in the top half of the image below.
Support for biochar and olivine sand could be implemented through a second set of feebates, as pictured in the bottom half of the image below. Revenues from these feebates could also be used to support further technologies, as described in the paragraph below.
Further technologies should be considered for their effectiveness in specific areas, including:
- release of oxygen to help combat methane in the Arctic and to help combat loss of stratospheric ozone
- use of plastic sheets to capture methane
- use of radio waves to enhance methane decomposition
- release of aerosols over water at higher latitudes
- surface & cloud brightening to reflect more sunlight back into space
- greater flow of stagnant water by digging channels and diverting water from rivers
- diverting water from rivers to avoid warm water flowing into the Arctic Ocean
- release of fish, oxygen and diatoms in water
- strengthening beds of rivers and lakes with soil supplements that include biochar and olivine sand
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